The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination that originated in the Netherlands in the late 19th century. It was established as a result of a theological and political dispute between the Roman Catholic Church and a group of Dutch Catholics who were dissatisfied with certain aspects of Roman Catholic doctrine and practice, particularly the definition of papal infallibility.
The Old Catholic Church adheres to many of the traditional beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, but it also has some distinct differences, such as a more decentralized structure and a greater emphasis on individual conscience and freedom of thought. The Old Catholic Church is not in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church, but it is recognized as a valid form of Catholicism by several other Christian denominations, including the Anglican Communion.
While the Church of Jerusalem has some similarities, it is not affiliated with the Old Catholic Church.